Water Management: Center and State government needs to take collaborative action
- Water being a State subject, steps for augmentation, conservation and efficient management of water resources are primarily undertaken by the respective State Governments.
- In order to supplement the efforts of the State Governments, the Central Government provides technical and financial assistance to them through various schemes and programmes.
Initiatives by Government of India
Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM)
- Provision of potable tap water supply to every rural household at the service level of 55 liter per capita per day by 2024.
- So far, 5.91 crore (30%) rural households have been provided with tap water connections in last 30 months.
- Tap water supply in drought-prone/water-scarce areas/areas with inadequate rainfall/dependable ground water sources: provisions for bulk water transfer from long distances and regional water supply schemes.
- Provisions have been made for source recharging such as:
- dedicated bore well recharge structures,
- rain water recharge,
- rejuvenation of existing water bodies, etc.,
- Launched in convergence with other schemes such as MGNREGS, Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP).
Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) 2.0
- To provide universal coverage of water supply through functional household tap connections in all statutory towns in the country.
- It focuses on making cities water secure through recycle/reuse of treated sewage, rejuvenation of water bodies and water conservation.
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY)
- To enhance physical access of water on farms and for expanding cultivable area under assured irrigation, improve on-farm water use efficiency, introducing sustainable water conservation practices, etc.
- PMKSY-Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme (AIBP) has been prioritized in consultation with States for completion in phases.
- The extension of PMKSY for the period 2021-22 to 2025-26 has been approved by Government of India, with an overall outlay of Rs. 93,068.56 crore.
- The Command Area Development & Water Management (CADWM) programme was brought under Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) - Har Khet Ko Pani from 2015-16 onwards.
- Main objective of CAD works: to enhance utilization of irrigation potential created, and improve agriculture production on a sustainable basis through Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM).
- The programme targets at least 10% of the Culturable Command Area (CCA) of the included projects for development of micro-irrigation infrastructure for facilitating use of sprinkler/drip/ pivots irrigation systems.
- It mandates formation of Water Users’ Associations (WUAs) under each project, and also gives them start-up support through one-time infrastructure grants and functional grants.
- CADWM projects are essentially executed by the State Government Departments (CADA, WRD, PWD, PHE etc.) and presently they are in operation in 18 States.
Per Drop More Crop
- By Department of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.
- It focuses on water use efficiency at farm level through micro irrigation (drip and sprinkler irrigation system).
National Perspective Plan (NPP) of interlinking of rivers
- for transferring water from surplus basins to deficit basins/areas.
- National Water Development Agency (NWDA) has identified 30 links (16 under Peninsular Component and 14 under Himalayan Component) for preparation of Feasibility Reports (FRs) under Inter-linking of Rivers Project.
- Under the intra-State link projects, NWDA received 49 link proposals from 10 States out of which pre-feasibility reports of 39 link projects were completed and sent to concerned States.
‘Sahi Fasal’ campaign
- Launched by the National Water Mission (NWM).
- To nudge farmers in the water stressed areas to grow crops which use water very efficiently.
- Such crops are economically remunerative, healthy and nutritious, suited to the agro-climatic-hydro characteristics of the area and are environment friendly.
National Aquifer Mapping and Management program (NAQUIM)
- Implemented by CGWB as part of Ground Water Management and Regulation (GWM&R) Scheme, a Central Sector scheme.
- It envisages mapping of aquifers (water bearing formations), their characterization and development of Aquifer Management Plans to facilitate sustainable management of groundwater resources in the country.
- NAQUIM outputs are shared with States/UTs for suitable interventions.
Atal Bhujal Yojana
- A Central Sector Scheme.
- The focus is on community participation and demand side interventions for sustainable groundwater management in identified water stressed areas.
“Jal Shakti Abhiyan: Catch the Rain” (JSA:CTR)
- Theme “Catch the Rain - Where it Falls When it Falls.”
- It covers all the blocks of all districts (rural as well as urban areas) across the country.
- It has 5 focused interventions:
- Rainwater harvesting & water conservation,
- Enumerating, geo-tagging & making inventory of all water bodies; preparation of scientific plans for water conservation,
- Setting up Jal Shakti Kendras in all districts,
- Intensive afforestation,
- Awareness generation.