Sweden, Finland sign protocol to join NATO, await ratification

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Sweden, Finland sign protocol to join NATO, await ratification

  • NATO’s 30 allies signed an accession protocol for Finland and Sweden to allow them to join the nuclear-armed alliance.


  • NATO is also called the North Atlantic Alliance.
  • Objective: It is an intergovernmental military alliance between North American and European countries. It constitutes a system of collective defence whereby its independent member states agree to mutual defence in response to an attack by any external party.
  • HQ: Brussels, Belgium.
  • Origin: The alliance is based on the North Atlantic Treaty that was signed in 1949.
  • Member Countries: It consists of 29 independent member countries. Three former Soviet states (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania) are members of NATO.
  • Partners: NATO cooperates with a range of international organisations and countries in different structures (as mentioned below) -
  • Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC)
  • NATO's Mediterranean Dialogue
  • Istanbul Cooperation Initiative (ICI)
  • Partners across the globe: Under it, countries develop cooperation with NATO in areas of mutual interest, including emerging security challenges. In 2018, Colombia become partner across the globe. Pakistan is also NATO’s partner across the globe.

NATO expansion

  • Most significant expansion since the mid-1990s.
  • Protocol means Helsinki and Stockholm can participate in NATO meetings and have greater access to intelligence
  • They will not be protected by NATO defence clauses.

Turkey’s warning

  • Turkey’s President warned that Finland and Sweden must first keep their promises.
  • They had agreed on a series of security measures.
  • Finland and Sweden pledged not to support Kurdish militant or network of U.S.-based cleric Fethullah Gulen.

Prelims take away

  • NATO