Situation along border between India-Pakistan remains stable
- The situation along Line of Control remains stable post the Directorate General of Military Operations (DGsMO) Understanding of February 2021.
- Both the Armies have exercised restraint in the interest of maintaining peace along the LC.
Border dispute along LoC
- Kashmir is one of the most volatile areas in the world
- Both countries have fiercely contested with each other over Kashmir
- India claims that Kashmir entirely belongs to it.
- India views the instrument of accession signed by Maharaja Hari Singh as legally binding, hence legally and fairly giving Kashmir to India
- Claims of Pakistan: Kashmir illegitimately ceded to India by a ruler who did not represent its people.
- Since majority of Muslim majority states went to Pakistan, Pakistan believe Kashmir should belong to them.
Siachen dispute and role of NJ9842
- Location: Northern Ladakh in Karakoram range originating from the Pamirs.
- Area: approx. 78 km.
- It is located near the Indo-Pak Line of Control
- It is the highest battlefield of the world.
- Reasons for dispute
- NJ9842 : Conflict stems from incompletely demarcated territory on the map beyond coordinate k/a NJ9842 (35.008371°N 77.008805°E)
- 1949 Karachi Agreement and 1972 Simla Agreement did not clearly mention who controlled the glacier, merely stating that Cease Fire Line (CFL) terminated at NJ9842
- UN officials presumed that there will be no dispute b/w India and Pakistan over such a cold and barren region.
- Operation Meghdoot : By India on 13 April 1984.
- India took control of Siachen Glacier, main passes and heights of Saltoro Ridge immediately west of the glacier, including Sia La, Bilafond La, and Gyong La.
- Cease-fire into effect in 2003 - both sides maintain a heavy military presence in the area.
- Both countries had agreed to observe the 2003 ceasefire agreements along the Line of Control (LoC) and all other sectors in Feb 2021
- The agreement came in the wake of over 5000 instances of Cross Fire Violations (CFVs) along the Line of Control (LoC) and other areas in Jammu and Kashmir, resulting in 46 fatal casualties in 2020.
- The decision was taken after discussion between the two Director Generals of Military Operations (DGsMO).