Monkeypox Virus

Contact Counsellor

Monkeypox Virus

  • Monkeypox has recently been seen in various urban areas and now in more than 50 countries.

About monkeypox

  • Virus of poxviruses family causes rare contagious rash illness k/a monkeypox.
  • Hosts: rodents and primates.
  • It is a self-limiting disease with symptoms lasting two to four weeks.
  • Case fatality rate of 3-6 per cent.
  • Symptoms: Skin rash on any part of body, Swollen lymph nodes, other symptoms include fever, chills, headache, muscle or back aches, and weakness.
  • Mode of transmission: Touching skin lesions, bodily fluids, or clothing or linens that have been in contact with an infected person.
  • It does not spread from person to person through everyday activities.
  • Treatment: Mostly treated by managing symptoms and preventing complications if it is diagnosed.
  • For immunocompromised person, complications can occur.
  • Pulmonary failure was most common complication with high mortality rate.

Containment Measures

  • People with symptoms should be monitored.
  • It is critical to isolate the infected, cover their lesions, and contact nearest healthcare provider.
  • Avoid close physical contact with others
  • Educate grassroots workers about various facets of disease.
  • Increased surveillance and detection are critical for controlling the disease’s spread and understanding changing epidemiology.
  • Preventive health measures, such as avoiding infected animal or human contact and practicing good hand hygiene, are best option.

Vaccines and drugs

  • US’s pre exposure vaccination is available to healthcare workers and lab workers exposed to this group of poxviruses.
  • Smallpox vaccine is 85% effective against the disease.
  • ACAM2000 is a live vaccinia virus vaccine and can be used for high-risk individuals during monkeypox outbreaks.
  • Tecovirimat, an antiviral drug is recommended for monkeypox.
  • Challenges:
  • Smallpox vaccination programmes have been discontinued for past 50 years, resulting in scarcity of effective vaccines.
  • Approved drugs and vaccines are not widely available to control monkeypox.

Way forward

  • Plan for pandemic preparedness
  • Zoonotic diseases are caused by various factors such as unchecked deforestation, failure to prioritise public health, poverty, and climate change.
  • Strengthen the surveillance infrastructure
  • Hire public health professionals and field workers who can participate in outbreak detection and response during many future PHEICs.


  • Without prioritizing public health strengthening, threat of new and re-emerging infectious diseases is real and grave.