- Monkeypox has recently been seen in various urban areas and now in more than 50 countries.
- Virus of poxviruses family causes rare contagious rash illness k/a monkeypox.
- Hosts: rodents and primates.
- It is a self-limiting disease with symptoms lasting two to four weeks.
- Case fatality rate of 3-6 per cent.
- Symptoms: Skin rash on any part of body, Swollen lymph nodes, other symptoms include fever, chills, headache, muscle or back aches, and weakness.
- Mode of transmission: Touching skin lesions, bodily fluids, or clothing or linens that have been in contact with an infected person.
- It does not spread from person to person through everyday activities.
- Treatment: Mostly treated by managing symptoms and preventing complications if it is diagnosed.
- For immunocompromised person, complications can occur.
- Pulmonary failure was most common complication with high mortality rate.
- People with symptoms should be monitored.
- It is critical to isolate the infected, cover their lesions, and contact nearest healthcare provider.
- Avoid close physical contact with others
- Educate grassroots workers about various facets of disease.
- Increased surveillance and detection are critical for controlling the disease’s spread and understanding changing epidemiology.
- Preventive health measures, such as avoiding infected animal or human contact and practicing good hand hygiene, are best option.
Vaccines and drugs
- US’s pre exposure vaccination is available to healthcare workers and lab workers exposed to this group of poxviruses.
- Smallpox vaccine is 85% effective against the disease.
- ACAM2000 is a live vaccinia virus vaccine and can be used for high-risk individuals during monkeypox outbreaks.
- Tecovirimat, an antiviral drug is recommended for monkeypox.
- Smallpox vaccination programmes have been discontinued for past 50 years, resulting in scarcity of effective vaccines.
- Approved drugs and vaccines are not widely available to control monkeypox.
- Plan for pandemic preparedness
- Zoonotic diseases are caused by various factors such as unchecked deforestation, failure to prioritise public health, poverty, and climate change.
- Strengthen the surveillance infrastructure
- Hire public health professionals and field workers who can participate in outbreak detection and response during many future PHEICs.
- Without prioritizing public health strengthening, threat of new and re-emerging infectious diseases is real and grave.