India, Denmark agree to initiate joint research on green fuels
- The Joint Science and Technology Committee meeting held last week discussed national strategic priorities and developments in Science, Technology, and Innovation of both countries.
- The meeting, held virtually, put a special focus on green solutions for the future -- strategy for investments in green research, technology, and innovation, the ministry said in a statement.
- They agreed to organise 3-4 webinars for partnership development and stressed on promoting call for proposals in green fuels, including green hydrogen.
- The Joint Committee also reviewed the progress of the ongoing projects of last two joint calls being implemented in the areas of energy research; water; cyber-physical systems, and bioresources & secondary agriculture.
- Also known as biofuel, it is a type of fuel distilled from plants and animal materials, believed by some to be more environmentally friendly than the widely-used fossil fuels that power most of the world.
- The term “green” describes any type of fuel derived from biomass.
- This incorporates all kinds of organic matter, including plant and animal waste.
- As the feedstocks used to make green fuel are sustainable and naturally replenished, they’re considered renewable and eco-friendly.
- Unlike conventional fuels such as oil, which is naturally occurring but requires an extremely long geological process to form, biofuel can be produced in a matter of days.
- A huge variety of feedstocks can be used to create biofuel, ranging from vegetable oil and crop residue to algae and by-products from beer breweries.
- The two most common types of biofuels in use today are ethanol and biodiesel, both of which represent the first generation of biofuel technology.
- Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) is a renewable fuel that can be made from various plant materials, collectively known as “biomass.”
- Ethanol is an alcohol used as a blending agent with gasoline to increase octane and cut down carbon monoxide and other smog-causing emissions.
- The most common blend of ethanol is E10 (10% ethanol, 90% gasoline).
- Some vehicles, called flexible fuel vehicles, are designed to run on E85 (a gasoline-ethanol blend containing 51%–83% ethanol, depending on geography and season), an alternative fuel with much higher ethanol content than regular gasoline.
- Most ethanol is made from plant starches and sugars.
- However scientists are continuing to develop technologies that would allow for the use of cellulose and hemicellulose, the non-edible fibrous material that constitutes the bulk of plant matter.
- Biodiesel is a liquid fuel produced from renewable sources, such as new and used vegetable oils and animal fats and is a cleaner-burning replacement for petroleum-based diesel fuel.
- Biodiesel is nontoxic and biodegradable and is produced by combining alcohol with vegetable oil, animal fat, or recycled cooking grease.
- Like petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel is used to fuel compression-ignition (diesel) engines.
- Biodiesel can be blended with petroleum diesel in any percentage, including B100 (pure biodiesel) and, the most common blend, B20 (a blend containing 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel).