Inclusion of Wildlife sanctuaries as Tiger reserves and steps to avoid tiger-human conflict
- The National Tiger Conservation Authority has accorded approval to Sunabeda Wildlife Sanctuary, MM Hills Wildlife Sanctuary, Ramgarh Vishdhari Wildlife Sanctuary and Guru Ghasidas National Park & Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary to be declared as Tiger Reserve.
- To reduce the incidents of human-wildlife conflict, guidelines and Standard Operating Procedure have been issued by the Central Government through the National Tiger Conservation Authority.
Strategies to manage tiger-human conflict
- Material and logistical support: Funding support through the ongoing Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Project Tiger, is provided to tiger reserves for acquiring capacity in terms of infrastructure and material, to deal with tigers dispersing out of source areas.
- Restricting habitat interventions: Based on the carrying capacity of tigers in a tiger reserve, habitat interventions are restricted through an overarching Tiger Conservation Plan (TCP).
- Standard Operating Procedure (SOPs): The National Tiger Conservation Authority has issued following three SOPs to deal with human-animal conflict, which are available in public domain:
- To deal with emergency arising due to straying of tigers in human dominated landscapes
- To deal with tiger depredation on livestock
- For active management towards rehabilitation of tigers from source areas at the landscape level.
- It was launched in 1973 with 9 tiger reserves for conserving our national animal, the tiger.
- Currently, the Project Tiger coverage has increased to 53, spread out in 18 tiger range states.
- The tiger reserves are organised according to a core/buffer model.
- The core parts are legally designated as a national park or a sanctuary, whilst the buffer or surrounding areas are a mix of forest and non-forest land maintained as a multiple use area.
- It is an ongoing Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change that provides government support to tiger states for tiger conservation in designated tiger reserves.
National Tiger Conservation Authority
- It is a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change.
- It was established in 2005 following the recommendations of the Tiger Task Force.
- It was constituted under enabling provisions of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, as amended in 2006, for strengthening tiger conservation, as per powers and functions assigned to it.